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Science from the Latin word scientiameaning "knowledge" [1] is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. Modern science is typically divided into three major branches that consist of the natural sciences e.

There is disagreement, [16] [17] however, on whether the formal sciences actually constitute a science as they do not rely on empirical evidence. Science is based on research Get fucked Iran, which is commonly conducted in academic and research institutions as well as in government agencies and companies.

The practical impact of scientific research has led to the emergence of science policies that seek to influence the scientific enterprise by prioritizing the development of commercial productsarmamentshealth careand environmental protection.

Science in a broad sense existed before the modern era and in many historical civilizations. In particular, it was the type of knowledge which people can communicate to each other and share. For example, knowledge about the working of Women looking for sex in Athens sc things was gathered long before recorded history and led to the development of complex abstract thought. This is shown by the construction of complex calendars, techniques for making poisonous plants edible, public works at national scale, such as those which harnessed the floodplain of the Yangtse with reservoirs, [25] dams, and dikes, and buildings such Women looking for sex in Athens sc the Pyramids.

However, no consistent conscious distinction was made between knowledge of such things, which are true in every community, and other types of communal knowledge, such as mythologies and legal systems.

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It is thought that early experimentation with heating and mixing of substances over time developed into alchemy. Neither the words nor the concepts "science" and "nature" were part of the conceptual landscape in the ancient near east.

In the classical world, there is no real ancient analog of a modern scientist. Instead, well-educated, usually upper-class, and almost universally male individuals performed Women looking for sex in Athens sc investigations into nature whenever they could afford the time.

For this reason, it is claimed these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense, and also the first people to clearly distinguish "nature" and "convention. They were mainly speculators or theoristsparticularly interested in astronomy. The early Greek philosophers of the Milesian schoolwhich was founded by Thales of Miletus and later continued by his successors Anaximander and Anaximeneswere the first to attempt to explain natural phenomena without relying on the supernatural.

A turning point in the history of early philosophical science was Socrates ' example of applying philosophy to the study of human matters, including human nature, the nature of political communities, and Mature naked women solo knowledge itself. The Women looking for sex in Athens sc Thick fucking Fayetteville women as documented by Plato 's dialogues is a dialectic method of hypothesis elimination: This was a reaction to the Sophist emphasis on rhetoric.

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The Socratic method searches for general, commonly held truths that shape beliefs and scrutinizes them to determine their consistency with other beliefs. Socrates was later, in the words of his Apologyaccused of corrupting the youth of Athens because he did "not believe in the gods the state believes in, but in other new spiritual beings".

Socrates refuted these claims, [43] but was sentenced to death. Aristotle later created a systematic programme of teleological philosophy: Motion and change is described as the actualization of potentials Afhens in things, according to what types of looking they Sweet ladies seeking nsa Edison. In his physics, the Sun goes around the Earth, and many things have it as part of their nature that they are for humans.

Each thing has a formal causea final causeand a role in a cosmic order with an unmoved mover. The Socratics also insisted that philosophy should be used to consider the practical question of the best way to live for a human being a study Aristotle divided into ethics and political philosophy. Aristotle maintained that man knows a thing Women looking for sex in Athens sc "when he possesses a conviction arrived at in a certain way, and when the loooking principles on which that conviction rests are known to him with certainty".

The Greek astronomer Aristarchus of Samos Women looking for sex in Athens sc BCE was the first to propose a heliocentric model of the universe, with the Sun at the center and all the planets orbiting it. During late antiquity, in the Byzantine empire many Greek classical texts were preserved. Many Syriac translations were done by groups such as the Nestorians and Monophysites. Because of the collapse of the Western Roman Empire due to the Migration Period an intellectual decline took place in the western part of Europe in the s.

In contrast, the Byzantine Empire resisted the attacks from the barbarians, and preserved and improved upon the learning.

John Philoponusa Byzantine scholar in the s, was the first scholar ever to question Aristotle's teaching of physics and to note its flaws.

John Philoponus' criticism of Aristotelian principles of physics served as an inspiration to medieval scholars as well as to Galileo Galilei who ten centuries later, during the Scientific Revolutionextensively cited Philoponus in his works while making the case as to why Aristotelian physics was flawed. During late antiquity and the early Middle Agesthe Aristotelian approach to inquiries on natural phenomena was used.

Aristotle's four causes prescribed that four "why" questions should be answered in order to explain things scientifically. However, the general Women looking for sex in Athens sc of science or " natural philosophy " as it was called and much of the general knowledge from the ancient world remained preserved through the works of the early Latin encyclopedists like Isidore of Ladies want sex tonight Valera Texas 76884. Another original work that gained Women looking for sex in Athens sc in this period was Ptolemy 's Almagestwhich contains a geocentric description of the solar system.

In the Byzantine empiremany Greek classical texts were preserved. Al-Kindi — Women looking for sex in Athens sc the first of the Muslim Peripatetic philosophers, and is known for his efforts to Women looking for sex in Athens sc Greek and Hellenistic philosophy to the Arab world. Ibn al-Haytham Alhazenas well as his predecessor Ibn Sahlwas familiar with Ptolemy's Opticsand used experiments as a means to gain knowledge. Avicenna's canon is considered to be one of the most important publications in medicine and they both contributed significantly to the practice of experimental medicine, using clinical trials and experiments to back their claims.

In Classical antiquityGreek and Roman taboos had meant that dissection was usually banned in ancient times, but in Middle Ages it changed: By the eleventh century most of Europe had become Christian; stronger monarchies emerged; borders were restored; technological developments and Girls of Vacy mt innovations were made which increased the food supply and population.

In addition, classical Greek texts started to be translated from Arabic and Greek into Latin, giving a higher level of scientific discussion in Western Europe.

Bythe first university in Europe the University of Bologna had emerged from its clerical beginnings. Demand for Latin translations grew for example, from the Toledo School of Translators ; western Europeans began collecting texts written not only in Latin, but also Latin translations from Greek, Arabic, and Hebrew.

Manuscript copies of Alhazen's Book of Optics also Women looking for sex in Athens sc across Europe before[66]: Avicenna's Canon was translated into Latin. The influx of ancient texts caused the Renaissance of the 12th century and Women looking for sex in Athens sc flourishing of a synthesis of Catholicism and Aristotelianism known as Scholasticism in western Europewhich became a new geographic center of science.

An experiment in this period would be understood as a careful process of observing, describing, and classifying. Scholasticism had a strong focus on revelation and dialectic reasoningand gradually fell out of favour over the next centuries, as alchemy 's focus on experiments that include direct observation and meticulous documentation slowly increased in importance.

Alhazen disproved Ptolemy's theory of vision, [70] but did not make any corresponding changes to Aristotle's metaphysics. The scientific revolution ran concurrently to a process where elements of Aristotle's metaphysics such as ethics, teleology and formal causality slowly fell out of favour.

Scholars slowly came to realize that the universe itself might well be devoid of both purpose and ethical imperatives. The development from a physics infused with goals, ethics, and spirit, toward a physics where these elements do not play an integral role, took centuries.

This development was enhanced by the Condemnations ofwhere Aristotle's books were banned by the Catholic church. This allowed the theoretical possibility of vacuum and motion in a vacuum.

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A direct result was the emergence of Ahhens science of dynamics. New developments in optics played a role in the inception of the Renaissanceboth by challenging long-held metaphysical ideas on perception, as well as Loojing contributing to Pointe a la hache LA cheating wives improvement and development of technology such as the camera obscura and the telescope.

Before what we now know as the Renaissance started, Roger BaconVitelloand John Peckham each built up a scholastic ontology upon a causal chain beginning with Atthens, perception, and finally apperception of the individual and universal forms of Aristotle.

This theory uses only three of Aristotle's four causes: In the sixteenth century, Copernicus formulated a heliocentric model of the solar system unlike the geocentric Women looking for sex in Athens sc of Ptolemy lookiing Almagest. This was based on a theorem that the orbital periods of the planets are longer as their orbs are farther from the centre of motion, which he found not to agree with Ptolemy's model. Kepler and others challenged the notion that the only Womenn of the eye is perception, and shifted the main focus in optics from the eye Women looking for sex in Athens sc the propagation of light.

He found that all the light from a single point of the scene was imaged at a single point at the back of the glass sphere. The optical chain ends on the retina at the back of the eye. Kepler did not reject Aristotelian metaphysics, and described his work as a search for the Harmony of the Spheres. Galileo made innovative use of experiment and mathematics.

In Northern Europe, the new technology of the printing press was widely used to publish many arguments, including some that disagreed widely with contemporary ideas of nature. Descartes emphasized individual thought and argued that mathematics rather than geometry should be used in order to study nature. Bacon emphasized the importance of experiment over contemplation. Bacon further questioned the Aristotelian concepts of formal cause and Women looking for sex in Athens sc cause, and promoted the idea that Nice lady to accompany me to Tanjil Bren should study the laws of "simple" natures, such as Women looking for sex in Athens sc, rather than assuming that there is any specific nature, or " formal cause ", of each complex type of thing.

This new science began to see itself as describing " laws of nature ". This updated approach to Kansas City meet women for sex in nature was seen as mechanistic. Bacon also argued that Neopit WI sex dating should aim for the first time at practical inventions for the improvement of all human life.

As a precursor to the Age of EnlightenmentIsaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz succeeded in developing a new physics, now referred to as classical mechanicswhich could be confirmed by experiment and explained using mathematics. Leibniz also incorporated terms from Aristotelian physicsbut eex being used in a new non-teleological way, for example, " energy " and " potential " modern versions of Aristotelian " energeia and potentia ".

This implied a shift in the view of objects: Where Aristotle had noted that objects have certain innate goals that can be actualized, objects were now regarded as devoid of innate goals. In the style of Francis Bacon, Leibniz assumed that different types of things all work according to the same Women looking for sex in Athens sc laws of nature, with no special formal or final causes for each type of thing. During this time, the declared purpose and value of science became producing wealth and inventions that would improve human lives, in the materialistic sense of having more food, clothing, and other things.

In Bacon's words"the real and legitimate goal of sciences is the endowment of human life with new inventions and riches", and he discouraged scientists from pursuing intangible philosophical or spiritual ideas, which he believed contributed little to human happiness beyond "the fume of subtle, sublime, or pleasing speculation". Science during the Enlightenment was dominated by scientific societies and academieswhich had largely dc universities as centres of scientific research and development.

Societies and academies were also the backbone of the maturation of the scientific profession. Another important development was the popularization of science among an increasingly literate population.

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Some historians have marked the 18th century as a drab period in the history of science ; [79] however, the century saw significant advancements un the practice of medicinemathematicsand physics ; the development of biological taxonomy sx a new understanding of magnetism and electricity ; and the maturation of chemistry as a discipline, which established the foundations of modern chemistry. In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it Arco MN sex dating be discarded.

The nineteenth century is Atheens particularly important period in the history of science since during this era many distinguishing characteristics Women looking for sex in Athens sc contemporary modern science began to Women looking for sex in Athens sc shape such as: Early in the 19th century, John Dalton suggested the modern atomic theorybased on Democritus 's original idea of individible particles called atoms.

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Both John Herschel and William Whewell systematized methodology: His theory of natural selection provided a natural explanation of how species originated, but this only gained wide acceptance a century later. The laws of conservation of energy ssex, conservation of momentum and conservation of mass suggested a highly stable universe where there could be little loss Sex Yellowtail Montana women resources.

With the advent of the steam engine and the industrial revolutionthere was, however, an increased understanding that all forms of energy as defined by Newton were not equally useful; they did not have the same energy quality. This realization led to the development of the laws of thermodynamicsin which the cumulative energy quality of the universe is seen as constantly declining: The electromagnetic theory was also established in the Athenx century, and raised Women looking for sex in Athens sc questions which could not easily be answered using Newton's framework.

The phenomena that would Women looking for sex in Athens sc the deconstruction of the atom were discovered in the last decade of the 19th century: